Mapping Actors

A section of the infographic showing various actors in the voice industry in India.

Case Studies

Various cats speaking into a microphone in different languages.

Common Voice

Common Voice is an open-source dataset of voice recordings in multiple languages that can be used to train speech-enabled applications.

Cat shown as a woman in a saree using the text to speech function on a mobile phone.

Indic TTS

The Indic TTS consortium was developed to create more Indic language speech data to reduce the data divide between English and Indian languages.

Cat shown as an older man speaking into a mobile phone in order to make a bill payment.


Niki is described as an “artificial intelligence powered conversational commerce startup”, that directly engages with the individual consumer.

Literature Surveys

Evolution and Typology

An illustration of a cat robot with a microphone.

This essay traces the evolution of voice interfaces, including some of its early antecedents and availability in current forms, to offer an outline of the development and adoption of voice technologies as we know them today.

Accessibility and Voice Interfaces

An illustration of a cat figure with outstretched limbs in a circle.

This essay evaluates developments in voice technologies from the perspective of accessibility for persons with disabilities (PwDs), its key challenges and learnings.

Languages and Voice Interfaces

Speech bubbles containing text in a fictitious language.

This article looks at the possibilities and challenges of creating multilingual voice interfaces, with a focus on developments in adoption and use of Indian language voice data and services.

Privacy and Voice Interfaces

An illustration of a half covered eye.

This essay examines questions of voice interfaces and privacy, with a focus on the collection and processing of voice data and concerns related to data regulation and surveillance.



Browse here for a selection of the latest research on voice interfaces, in India and across the world, and to download sections of the report.